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Paperback revolution that started with Penguin

The first Penguin paperback book is published in England, kick-starting the paperback revolution on July 30, 1935. The introduction of steam-powered printing press, pulp mills, automatic typesetting and a good well-connected railway network led to many changes and developments in the printing and publishing business. Taking advantage of the new developments, Simms and Mcintyre of Belfast, Routledge & Sons and Ward & Lock mass-produced cheap yellowback or paperback editions of already available works. They distributed and sold them throughout the British

Remembering great reformer Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

The great social reformer, educationist, philosopher and writer, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar passed away on July 29, 1891. Born in a small village in West Bengal, Ishwar Chandra was sent to Calcutta at the age of six. His keenness to study and gain knowledge was so great that he used to study under the streetlight as he couldn’t afford a gas lamp. He won several scholarships, which helped him to pursue higher studies. He studied Sanskrit Grammar, Literature, Vedanta, Smruti and Astronomy

What triggered the first World War

Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, is assassinated along with his wife Sophie, by a Serbian nationalist, Gavrilo Princip, in Sarajevo, Bosnia, leading to the outbreak of the World War I on July 28, 1914. As a reaction to this incident, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, triggering a series of threats and mobilisation orders. By mid-August, two powerful alliances across Europe were formed and pitted against each other. The Central power had Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria

Remembering war heroes on Kargil Vijay Diwas

The Kargil war between India and Pakistan came to an end on this day on July 26, 1999. This day is now remembered as the ‘Kargil Vijay Diwas’. Also known as Operation Vijay, the Kargil war was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan. It took place in the Kargil district of Kashmir and on other places on the Line Of Control (LOC), the de facto border between both the countries. The war started in May when Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri

Puerto Rico got its constitution on July 25

Puerto Rico, a non-incorporated territory of the United States, adopted its constitution on July 25, 1952. Puerto Rico was discovered by Christopher Columbus during his second exploration of the new world in 1493. He named the island San Juan Bautista, after St. John, the Baptist. But it came to be known as Puerto Rico meaning ‘rich port’ because of the gold found in its river. The capital city was given the name San Juan. Fifteen years after Columbus’s visit, a soldier named

For the love of ice cream cone

The first ice cream cone created during the St Louis World Fair on July 23, 1904. There are many versions of the creation of the ice cream cone at the St Louis World Fair, with different people taking credit as its’ creator. The first version, which is also verified by the International Association of Ice Cream Manufacturers, credits it to Earnest Hamwi, a pastry maker. During the fair, Hamwi had his stall beside ice cream seller Arnold Fomachou. When Arnold ran

APPLE: India’s first three-axis communication satellite

APPLE or Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment satellite, which was launched by Indian Space Research Organization on July 19, became functional on July 22, 1981. The launch was a major achievement in India’s space program history. The experimental communications satellite had a C-Band transponder and was launched by Ariane, which was a launch vehicle of the European Space Agency from Center Spatial Guyanais in French Guiana. The main highlights of APPLE were: • It was India’s first three-axis stabilised experimental geostationary communication satellite. •

The saga of the great Indian flag

Before the independence movement began, India as a country did not have a common flag. Independent states had their own flags. But it was after the Revolt of 1857; the British suggested the idea of a common one for Indians. The first flag known as the Star of India was based on British symbols. It was a group of flags, which the Britishers used for different purposes during their rule in India. In 1905, the first partition of Bengal gave a

The journey to moon of Apollo 11 astronauts

‘That’s a small step for man, one giant leap for mankind’ – these famous words by Neil Armstrong, when he landed on the moon with Apollo 11, have been etched in history on July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong along with fellow astronauts Edwin Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins made the historic journey to the moon on this day. Armstrong and Aldrin are the first astronauts who successfully landed the Lunar Module Eagle on the moon, while Collins orbited in the Command

History behind ‘V for Victory’ symbol

Have you ever wondered how and when did people start using the V for Victory symbol? Well, the answer to it lies in today’s date in the year of 1941. It all began after midnight on July 18, 1941, when a radio host, Col. V. Britton broadcasted a special message on behalf of Prime Minister Winston Churchill to the occupied countries of Europe. The message that was read out was: “The V sign is the symbol of the unconquerable will of

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